## mobi Faraday, Maxwell, and the Electromagnetic Field

Free mobi è doc Faraday, Maxwell, and the Electromagnetic Field Maxwell and the Electromagnetic Field ✓ Nancy Forbes ✓ ➥ [Epub] ➟ Faraday, Maxwell, and the Electromagnetic Field By Nancy Forbes ➯ – Eyltransferservices.co.Umber of advances in his own right But when he translated Faraday's ideas into mathematical language thus creating field theory this unified framework of electricity magnetism and light became the basis for much of later th century physicsFaraday's and Maxwell's collaborative efforts gave rise to many of the technological innovations we take for granted today from electric power generation to television and much Told with panache warmth and clarity this captivating story of their greatest work in which each played an eual part and their inspiring lives will bring new appreciation to these giants of science Forbes and Mahon have written a fabulous scientific biography presenting us the life stories not only of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell but of the birth of electromagnetism as a field of serious study unifying the phenomena of electricity and magnetism thought separate for millenniaIn the final chapter they carry the story beyond Maxwell's death and link it satisfyingly with the development of uantum and special relativity theoryThis book left me wanting to read a biography of Oliver Heaviside; Faraday and Maxwell are presented as near saints men of virtually unflagging grace and flawless conduct That their lives are told so engagingly is a credit to the inherent fascinations of their fields of study but also to the authors of this book How much exciting then would Heaviside's cantankerous life story beForbes and Mahon have included enough mathematics to do credit to Maxwell's contributions; Maxwell's euations are legendary in the history of physics and to omit them would have been an injustice No understanding of calculus is reuired and the vector concepts of divergence curl and gradient are carefully explained in a ualitative accessible way Even then they come only near the end of the book climactic discoveries that they wereThe end notes freuently contain interesting supplementary information and in the chapter where Maxwell's euations come into flower the authors present there briefly additional mathematical and concepts from physical theoryIn my view this book is outstanding model writing in the history of physics for the lay reader and a far far better effort than Steven Johnson's The Invention of Air on Joseph Priestley whose story had the advantage of offering much drama and excitement and yet was handled clumsily and indifferently

### Nancy Forbes å and the Electromagnetic Field reader

The story of two brilliant and the eBook #8608 nineteenth century scientists who discovered the electromagnetic field laying the groundwork for the amazing technological and Faraday Maxwell eBook #10003 theoretical breakthroughs of the twentieth centuryTwo of the boldest and most creative scientists of all time were Michael Faradayand Maxwell and the PDFEPUB #236 James Clerk MaxwellThis is the story of how these two men separated in age by forty years discovered the existence of the electromagnetic field and devised a radically new theory which overturned the strictly mechanical view of the world that had Newton credited his success to “standing on the shoulders of giants” A British reporter asked Albert Einstein if he had stood on the shoulders of Newton Einstein replied “That statement is not uite right; I stood on Maxwell’s shoulders” Maxwell could be said to have stood on Faraday’s shoulders Forbes and Mahon’s book lays out how they transformed physics paving the way for the momentous discoveries of the twentieth centuryMichael Faraday’s experiments with electricity and magnetism led not only to the generator and electric motor but a new understanding of how these forces worked James Clerk Maxwell used Faraday’s findings to mathematically define the relationship between electricity and magnetism and in turn electromagnetic waves and the nature of light Their work led to the breakthroughs of Planck Einstein Feynman and many others culminating in modern field theories including today’s Standard ModelFaraday was born into a poor London family As a bookbinder’s apprentice he seized the opportunity to read and educate himself Fascinated by science he secured a lowly position helping the famous chemist Humphrey Davy at the Royal Institution With hard work he established himself as a respected scientist despite his lowly origins in a classist society His unusual background for a scientist of the times would enable him to see things in ways others did not With no education in mathematics or Newtonian principles he relied on his disciplined keen observations basing his ideas solely on his experimental results He supported his work with meticulous notes and publicationsIn 1800 Alessandro Volta invented the battery Now electric current could readily be produced at will Twenty years later Hans Christian Oersted showed that electric current caused a magnetic needle to move aligning itself at a right angle to the wire Faraday then built a primitive form of electric motor in which a magnet moved continuously around an electric wire Faraday experimented with electricity and magnetism for years discovering electromagnetic induction Unencumbered by thoughts of Newton’s instantaneous action at a distance or Kant’s theory of attraction and repulsion Faraday recognized that circular “lines of force” a term he coined mediated magnetism and electricity In 1830 Faraday built a dynamo in which a metal disc spinning in between a horseshoe magnet generated electric current Faraday had realized that the lines of force were an electric field and that if an electric field could induce a magnetic one the reverse would also be true He reached these conclusions without mathematics He was able to picture this force as waves similar to light or sound His publications explaining his discoveries contained no formulas In 1845 a young prodigy William Thomson later Lord Kelvin read Faraday’s publications Other scientists did not really believe Faraday’s lines of force were real The seventeen year old Thomson did describing them in a paper with the same mathematics used to depict the flow of heat through a metal bar That same year Faraday first used the term “magnetic field” in describing his experiments He also gave a rare talk about his beliefs which he knew would be ridiculed He postulated vibrating electric and magnetic lines of force pervading the universe with no need of the commonly accepted aether The vibrations which he called “Ray vibrations” were the lines of force Light was a manifestation of these vibrations As expected Faraday’s “magnetic field” and “lines of force” were uickly dismissed by his peers William Thomson moved on to other things but in the 1850’s he suggested to a young James Clerk Maxwell that he read Faraday’s publications In 1857 Maxwell published his findings on Faraday’s theory Faraday was thrilled to find a brilliant mathematically trained scientist embrace his ideas Maxwell compared the movement of an electric field to that of fluids It moved from areas of high potential to low just as fluid moved from higher pressure to low Adapting mathematics used to describe the flow of fluids he was able to encapsulate Faraday’s lines of force in a way familiar to conventional scientists Maxwell born in 1831 in Scotland was forty years younger than Faraday but blossomed uickly He graduated from Cambridge won the highly competitive Smith Prize and became a fellow of Trinity College He wrote his paper reformulating Faraday’s ideas mathematically and moved on to the Chair of Natural Philosophy at Marischal College in his native Scotland He was now twenty five In his late twenties he won the Adams Prize for showing mathematically that Saturn’s rings must be composed of small separate bodies as seen later by the Voyager and Cassini space missions He also formulated the first statistical law in physics the Maxwell distribution of molecular speeds paving the way for research in thermodynamics and the use of probability distributions in uantum mechanicsIn 1862 Maxwell wrote a new paper on electromagnetism extending his prior work Constructing an elaborate mechanical model he depicted how an electric field could induce a magnetic one which in turn would induce an electric one repeating ad infinitum With the supporting math he formulated the electromagnetic wave and validated Faraday’s original idea of “Ray vibrations” from his 1845 speech Just as with Faraday’s ideas Maxwell’s were not well received by his peers His mechanical model was seen as ludicrous Maxwell said the model was imaginary serving only as an aid to thought a visualization that helped him develop the mathematics With that math he calculated the speed of the waves and found them to be the same within experimental error as existing measurements of light thus showing both to be the same phenomenon Maxwell wrote a subseuent paper without employing any mechanical model relying on Lagrangian math to show the interactions of the electromagnetic fields He eschewed the accepted notion of action at a distance showing that the local action of the field explained experimental results The math proved the waves existence even if we did not know any underlying reality In a significant departure from accepted practice Maxwell held that a physical hypothesis was not necessary Presenting his ideas to The Royal Society in 1864 he found little support Few could understand his math which employed three dimensional vectors He had dismissed the universally accepted aether without offering any physical alternative It would be decades before the significance of Maxwell’s achievement would be recognized Unfortunately Michael Faraday suffering from dementia was unable to appreciate Maxwell’s work He died in 1867 at the age of 75In a separate effort writing a book on heat Maxwell conceptualized what William Thomson called “Maxwell’s demon” a thought experiment which is still discussed in the study of thermodynamics Then Maxwell took the job to build set up open 1874 and be the first administrator of the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge which would be the workplace of famous scientists like Ernest Rutherford James Watson and many In 1879 Maxwell died of cancer only 48 years old After his death a few believers the Maxwellians took up his work One Oliver Heaviside simplified the math reducing it to four essential euations the ones in textbooks today In Germany in 1888 Heinrich Hertz first demonstrated the waves experimentally for which The Royal Society awarded him The Rumford Medal Guglielmo Marconi put the waves to practical use and in 1901 transmitted radio waves from Cornwall to NewfoundlandMaxwell’s work invoked local action dismissed action at a distance eviscerated the aether proved electromagnetic fields and waves and showed that reality could be represented by math alone; all ideas essential for twentieth century physics As Einstein put it “One scientific epoch ended and another began with James Clerk Maxwell” Einstein elaborated “Since Maxwell’s time physical reality has been thought of as represented by continuous fields and not capable of any mechanical interpretation This change in the conception of reality is the most profound and fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton” Interestingly in his formulation of electrodynamics Richard Feynman went back to Maxwell’s detailed math Feynman noted “ten thousand years from now there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the nineteenth century will be judged as Maxwell’s discovery of the laws of electrodynamics”

### eBook ´ Maxwell and the Electromagnetic Field å Nancy Forbes

Faraday Maxwell and the Electromagnetic FieldPrevailed since Newton's timeThe authors veteran science writers with special expertise in physics and engineering have created a lively narrative that interweaves rich biographical detail from each man's life with clear explanations of their scientific accomplishments Faraday was an autodidact who overcame class prejudice and a lack of mathematical training to become renowned for his acute powers of experimental observation technological skills and prodigious scientific imagination James Clerk Maxwell was highly regarded as one of the most brilliant mathematical physicists of the age He made an enormous n Fantastic book that I could not put down Very well researched Real physics discussed but easy to comprehend The authors really did great starting with Faraday I liked the descriptions of his early motorgenerator experiments The science and his life were seamlessly discussed I was very sad when Faraday died in the book But what a great transition to Maxwell And Maxwell really did stand on the shoulders of Faraday Both of these men make me want to double the number of labs I use as a physics teacher They were so practical The conclusion of the book was a bonus bringing Heavyside into full view since Maxwell's euations as we see them on T Shirts are from Oliver Heavyside's work The addition of Einstein Planck Bohr Feynman and others that stood on the shoulders of Maxwell really rounded out the book I had borrowed it from my local library but I must by a personal copy of this book