Lenin's Tomb The Last Days of the Soviet Empire Reader ´ 624 pages Download


Reader Lenin's Tomb The Last Days of the Soviet Empire

Lenin's Tomb The Last Days of the Soviet Empire Reader ´ 624 pages Download Ù [KINDLE] ✽ Lenin's Tomb The Last Days of the Soviet Empire Author David Remnick – Eyltransferservices.co.uk In the tradition of John Reed's classic Ten Days That Shook the World this bestselling account of the collE immediacy of eyewitness journalism A moving illumination Remnick is the witness for us all Wall Street Journ This is history told with verve We see how the corruption and repression of the Communist Party led to its downfall We witness the Soviet Union disintegrate We are there as it happens with interviews of participants from striking coal miners and political prisoners to top officials and leading dissidents Particularly fascinating is the portrayal of Gorbachev as the tragic transitional figure with one foot in the future and one foot that could never leave the past He starts down the road to change but cannot envision where that road will lead Overtaken and cast aside by the democratic forces he unleashes the reformer who broke the chains of Bolshevism ends up disillusioned and bitter Remnick shows how history itself is an agent of change The turning point was facing the truth of Soviet history Tightly controlled since Stalin’s consolidation of power in 1928 Russians were fed a mythological version touting the greatness of the Party and its tyrannical leaders Young students were indoctrinated through The Short Course text taught in all Soviet schools Disagreement was severely punished In 1956 Khrushchev denounced Stalin and his purges in his “Secret Speech” given only to the Party Congress The truth began to leak out amidst Khrushchev’s “thaw” But when Brezhnev replaced Khrushchev in 1964 the Soviet Union entered a neo Stalinist era of renewed repression Russia was deeply divided The right wing Stalin’s defenders had their identities intertwined with his and his mythological history The millions murdered and imprisoned had been enemies of the state disruptors of the order and deniers of the greatness of Russia On the left were the dissidents the minorities the oppressed the families of the victims They knew the truth but it took great courage to speak out against the belligerent right with the KGB on their side The key was the control of history As the Stalinist’s lost it their dominance eroded Gorbachev grew up in simple circumstances His academic success earned him admission to law school at Moscow State University where unlike other courses of study students were exposed to traditional Western thought from Roman law to the US Constitution He and many supporters led double lives maintaining Party loyalty while instigating change Gorbachev survived and prospered by keeping his thoughts to himself until the right time A clever politician he carefully orchestrated his television and media image Gorbachev took over in 1985 with his policy of glasnost Russia began to come to terms with its past In 1986 he allowed Andrei Sakharov to return to Moscow from internal exile in Gorky The physicist turned dissident spoke out with influential moral authority Gorbachev’s speech in 1987 on the 70th anniversary of the October revolution while praising the Party recounted Stalin’s crimes By 1989 many previously forbidden books were becoming publicly available including Solzhenitsyn’s The Gulag Archipelago and Pasternak’s Dr Zhivago The Communist Party was a mafia Corruption and bribery were the norm Everyone participated from the lowest service worker to the very top of the party Jobs and perks were controlled by the Party The Party elite lived in beautiful dachas with access to the finest Western goods Leaders in some regions lived like kings in their fiefdoms But most Soviet citizens lived in or near poverty Everyday items taken for granted in the West were not affordable for most people and those available were of vastly inferior uality Workers toiled in primitive conditions in factories that spewed pollution sickening the residents Farms were so badly managed they barely functioned at all Working in the mines was the worst Soap wasn’t even available to wash with Mine waste made lakes so toxic that they dissolved bones Not surprisingly miners were the first to strike in 1989 This was the beginning of the end Eastern Europe was in turmoil and the Baltic States would soon lead the collapse of the Soviet Union itself Just as Khrushchev could not take the next step after denouncing Stalin in his Secret Speech so too could Gorbachev only go so far in his perestroika While for party reform he was against true democracy with multiple parties While delegitimizing Stalin he held onto the myth of Lenin Despite Sakharov’s warning to Gorbachev that the only viable course was to come completely over to the side of the dissidents Gorbachev straddled moving ahead blindly with no plan The old guard fought him tooth and nail but they too would not prevail As the truth came out everyone saw that Lenin and the Party was culpable of horrendous crimes against society Gorbachev unwilling to go that far would also be swept aside As things unfolded he became conservativeIn March 1990 the first elections allowing new parties were held New times also meant a new breed of young entrepreneurs began set up shop Some were wildly successful ignoring the law and became rich Crime including protection rackets followed Crime once the sole province of the Party was now open to everyone Young Russians fell in love with American pop culture the music the Hollywood stars even baseball and then there was McDonalds Things were changing fast The 1990 Mayday parade in Moscow showed how far the dissidents had come In the regular parade the usual communist propaganda slogans were gone and in the parade that followed dissidents openly criticized the party and extolled freedom for the Soviet Republics Gorbachev put on a good face but clearly was upset On October 16 1990 one day after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize Gorbachev rejected the 500 Day Plan to dismantle the old order and initiate capitalism This step back to forestall an attempt at counter revolution by the right wing and KGB would not work In December 1990 Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze resigned saying a new dictatorship was coming The first politically independent newspaper “Nezavisimaya Gazeta” began and openly criticized the Party Gorbachev defended the Party and increasingly became its hostage In January 1991 tanks rolled into Lithuania in a botched attempt to depose the government which had declared its independence Gorbachev was now completely discredited as a reform leader In June 1991 Yeltsin who had outmaneuvered the hardliners by changing the law to call for direct election of the Russian President was elected President of Russia Yeltsin could now challenge Gorbachev the President of the rapidly imploding Soviet UnionIn August 1991 the old guard many of whom Gorbachev trusted led an ill fated coup attempt Poor planning and lack of the brutal will of their Bolshevik antecedents led to failure Many in the military and other high positions would not carry out their orders The conspirators put Gorbachev under house arrest announcing that the “Committee” was now in charge Yeltsin acted decisively With thousands of supporters he barricaded himself in the Russian White House As the days wore on it became apparent the “Committee” lacked the resolve and the support to carry out its coup Yeltsin prevailed and became a hero of Russia Gorbachev lost respect as he was shown to be naïve about those around him Even after the coup attempt was over Gorbachev wanted to stick to reform through the now entirely discredited Communist Party He still didn’t get it Yeltsin forced the dissolution of the Party and Gorbachev soon found himself out of a job unwanted and unloved by the democratic forces he refused to embrace and hated by the old guard whose demise he had led While honored in the West one cannot ignore Gorbachev’s duplicity throughout his years as Party General Secretary and Soviet President He did nothing to help the working class while he lived in opulence He talked democracy but approved many of the repressive tactics used to suash it Gorbachev began the process of democratization but it took a man he had denounced Yeltsin to finish it Sadly Yeltsin too would prove ineffective and today Putin Yeltsin’s chosen successor leads Russia ever further from democracy Lenin’s Tomb ends in 1991 a time of hope that unfortunately is yet to be realized

Lenin's Tomb The Last Days of the Soviet EmpireE immediacy of eyewitness journalism A moving illumination Remnick is the witness for us all Wall Street Journ This is history told with verve We see how the corruption and repression of the Communist Party led to its downfall We witness the Soviet Union disintegrate We are there as it happens with interviews of participants from striking coal miners and political prisoners to top officials and leading dissidents Particularly fascinating is the portrayal of Gorbachev as the tragic transitional figure with one foot in the future and one foot that could never leave the past He starts down the road to change but cannot envision where that road will lead Overtaken and cast aside by the democratic forces he unleashes the reformer who broke the chains of Bolshevism ends up disillusioned and bitter Remnick shows how history itself is an agent of change The turning point was facing the truth of Soviet history Tightly controlled since Stalin’s consolidation of power in 1928 Russians were fed a mythological version touting the greatness of the Party and its tyrannical leaders Young students were indoctrinated through The Short Course text taught in all Soviet schools Disagreement was severely punished In 1956 Khrushchev denounced Stalin and his purges in his “Secret Speech” given only to the Party Congress The truth began to leak out amidst Khrushchev’s “thaw” But when Brezhnev replaced Khrushchev in 1964 the Soviet Union entered a neo Stalinist era of renewed repression Russia was deeply divided The right wing Stalin’s defenders had their identities intertwined with his and his mythological history The millions murdered and imprisoned had been enemies of the state disruptors of the order and deniers of the greatness of Russia On the left were the dissidents the minorities the oppressed the families of the victims They knew the truth but it took great courage to speak out against the belligerent right with the KGB on their side The key was the control of history As the Stalinist’s lost it their dominance eroded Gorbachev grew up in simple circumstances His academic success earned him admission to law school at Moscow State University where unlike other courses of study students were exposed to traditional Western thought from Roman law to the US Constitution He and many supporters led double lives maintaining Party loyalty while instigating change Gorbachev survived and prospered by keeping his thoughts to himself until the right time A clever politician he carefully orchestrated his television and media image Gorbachev took over in 1985 with his policy of glasnost Russia began to come to terms with its past In 1986 he allowed Andrei Sakharov to return to Moscow from internal exile in Gorky The physicist turned dissident spoke out with influential moral authority Gorbachev’s speech in 1987 on the 70th anniversary of the October revolution while praising the Party recounted Stalin’s crimes By 1989 many previously forbidden books were becoming publicly available including Solzhenitsyn’s The Gulag Archipelago and Pasternak’s Dr Zhivago The Communist Party was a mafia Corruption and bribery were the norm Everyone participated from the lowest service worker to the very top of the party Jobs and perks were controlled by the Party The Party elite lived in beautiful dachas with access to the finest Western goods Leaders in some regions lived like kings in their fiefdoms But most Soviet citizens lived in or near poverty Everyday items taken for granted in the West were not affordable for most people and those available were of vastly inferior uality Workers toiled in primitive conditions in factories that spewed pollution sickening the residents Farms were so badly managed they barely functioned at all Working in the mines was the worst Soap wasn’t even available to wash with Mine waste made lakes so toxic that they dissolved bones Not surprisingly miners were the first to strike in 1989 This was the beginning of the end Eastern Europe was in turmoil and the Baltic States would soon lead the collapse of the Soviet Union itself Just as Khrushchev could not take the next step after denouncing Stalin in his Secret Speech so too could Gorbachev only go so far in his perestroika While for party reform he was against true democracy with multiple parties While delegitimizing Stalin he held onto the myth of Lenin Despite Sakharov’s warning to Gorbachev that the only viable course was to come completely over to the side of the dissidents Gorbachev straddled moving ahead blindly with no plan The old guard fought him tooth and nail but they too would not prevail As the truth came out everyone saw that Lenin and the Party was culpable of horrendous crimes against society Gorbachev unwilling to go that far would also be swept aside As things unfolded he became conservativeIn March 1990 the first elections allowing new parties were held New times also meant a new breed of young entrepreneurs began set up shop Some were wildly successful ignoring the law and became rich Crime including protection rackets followed Crime once the sole province of the Party was now open to everyone Young Russians fell in love with American pop culture the music the Hollywood stars even baseball and then there was McDonalds Things were changing fast The 1990 Mayday parade in Moscow showed how far the dissidents had come In the regular parade the usual communist propaganda slogans were gone and in the parade that followed dissidents openly criticized the party and extolled freedom for the Soviet Republics Gorbachev put on a good face but clearly was upset On October 16 1990 one day after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize Gorbachev rejected the 500 Day Plan to dismantle the old order and initiate capitalism This step back to forestall an attempt at counter revolution by the right wing and KGB would not work In December 1990 Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze resigned saying a new dictatorship was coming The first politically independent newspaper “Nezavisimaya Gazeta” began and openly criticized the Party Gorbachev defended the Party and increasingly became its hostage In January 1991 tanks rolled into Lithuania in a botched attempt to depose the government which had declared its independence Gorbachev was now completely discredited as a reform leader In June 1991 Yeltsin who had outmaneuvered the hardliners by changing the law to call for direct election of the Russian President was elected President of Russia Yeltsin could now challenge Gorbachev the President of the rapidly imploding Soviet UnionIn August 1991 the old guard many of whom Gorbachev trusted led an ill fated coup attempt Poor planning and lack of the brutal will of their Bolshevik antecedents led to failure Many in the military and other high positions would not carry out their orders The conspirators put Gorbachev under house arrest announcing that the “Committee” was now in charge Yeltsin acted decisively With thousands of supporters he barricaded himself in the Russian White House As the days wore on it became apparent the “Committee” lacked the resolve and the support to carry out its coup Yeltsin prevailed and became a hero of Russia Gorbachev lost respect as he was shown to be naïve about those around him Even after the coup attempt was over Gorbachev wanted to stick to reform through the now entirely discredited Communist Party He still didn’t get it Yeltsin forced the dissolution of the Party and Gorbachev soon found himself out of a job unwanted and unloved by the democratic forces he refused to embrace and hated by the old guard whose demise he had led While honored in the West one cannot ignore Gorbachev’s duplicity throughout his years as Party General Secretary and Soviet President He did nothing to help the working class while he lived in opulence He talked democracy but approved many of the repressive tactics used to suash it Gorbachev began the process of democratization but it took a man he had denounced Yeltsin to finish it Sadly Yeltsin too would prove ineffective and today Putin Yeltsin’s chosen successor leads Russia ever further from democracy Lenin’s Tomb ends in 1991 a time of hope that unfortunately is yet to be realized

Epub ↠ Lenin's Tomb The Last Days of the Soviet Empire · David Remnick

Lenin's Tomb The Last Days of the Soviet Empire ã Count of the collapse of the Soviet Union combines the global vision of the best historical scholarship with th I was about 100 pages into LENIN'S TOMB before I realized what this book was I had it in my head that it would be a traditional top down story about perestroika glasnost and the fall of the Soviet Union a fly on the wall story in the corridors of power What Remnick is after is arguably ambitious and interesting he's trying to chart the changing of attitudes that precipitated the collapse of the Soviet state in 1991 Perhaps I should have taken a clue from Remnick's THE BRIDGE which adopts a similar structure to explore the significance of Obama's 2008 electionHis approach has a loose narrative through line but is generally kaleidoscopic traveling from miners' strikes in central Asia to nationalist protests in the Balkans from the swaggering 'millionaires' who used arbitrage opportunities left by poor central planning to profit handsomely to the aging Stalinists who see the decline of collectivism in the same way that American evangelicals see the rise of gay marriage It is best in presenting a series of memorable moments in the passage from one regime to another young Communists in Leningrad cheering for Gordon Gecko in an official screening of WALL STREET; 'Miss KGB' a beauty ueen who does photo ops for the secret police to sell a pro perestroika message she reminded me of the CIA twitter feed; and the self pity of Party officials who for the first time have to deal with angry calls from constituents about garbage collection and potholesRemnick's thesis is that perestroika enabled a rare moment where the general population of Russia could engage with its history and where attempts to dislodge the truth about the Soviet state were of general concern With his focus on memory and atrocity Remnick often reminded me of the documentary THE ACT OF KILLING about the atrocities that accompanied Suharto's rise to power LENIN'S TOMB often has a similarly searing uality to itIf I have a complaint and perhaps this is unfair for a book written in 1993 it's that the kaleidoscopic uality makes it a little hard to see causality The book's strongest portion concerns the August 1991 coup which is a straightforward story involving many of the figures already profiled in the book that demonstrates Remnick's thesis about the changing attitudes Although as I'm writing this I'm not sure why I felt as if Remnick not being strong on the narrative was a failing; THE PROMISE OF THE NEW SOUTH is one of my favorite history books of all time and that's pure kaleidoscope Perhaps it's that Remnick is trying to show a process of change but his style sometimes obscures that processI picked up this book because I've been thinking about Russia a lot lately and I thought it would help me understand that country a bit I feel as if it certainly did so and I would recommend it Epub ↠ Lenin's Tomb The Last Days of the Soviet Empire · David Remnick

David Remnick · Lenin's Tomb The Last Days of the Soviet Empire Pdf

David Remnick · Lenin's Tomb The Last Days of the Soviet Empire Pdf In the tradition of The Last PDFEPUB #236 John Reed's classic Ten Days That Shook the World this bestselling ac If you are a hard line communist apparatchik about to launch a coup d’état against those who libel World Socialism and defame the noble memory of Stalin then here is some advice plan your coup well and don’t confuse planning with plottingThis is plotting the traitor Yeltsin will be arrested and held accountable for his crimes; Yanev will replace him as President of a new USSR its historic glory restoredThis is planning Yeltsin will be arrested at his Dacha in Vnukovo at 0400 hours on 19 August by a contingent of five trusted soldiers of the Felix Dzerhinsky division dispatched from the Nemchinovka barracks at 0333 travelling south west on the road to KrasnoznamenskThe August 1991 coup by soviet hardliners was very well plotted but wholly lacking in planningWhy wasn’t the Russian Parliament building the White House sealed and surrounded to prevent the Russian democratic parliamentarians from taking refuge in it copying the techniues of democratic supporters in Vilnius only a few months before How did Yeltsin drive past whole brigades of tanks to make his last stand there Why were practically none of the people on the arrest list actually arrestedHere is some advice lock up the drinks cabinet Being ‘zapoi’ – the Russian word for several days of drunkenness when one withdraws from society – seemed to be a reuirement for high office in a restored Soviet State If the plotters had sobered up enough to issue some half decent emergency decrees and order a few summary executions they would have probably succeededOf Yanayev made President of Russia by the plotters He was a vain man of small intelligence a womanizer and a drunk I'm not sure it is possible to describe just how hard it is to acuire a reputation as a drunk in Russia My Thai friend told me that there were so many coups in the country because Thailand has a food surplus Demonstrators on the barricades are never uite hungry enough to decisively overthrow the state; at the end of the day they can go back home and eat This seems to explain the deteriorating uality of the Russian coup over the seventy odd years from 1917 to 1991 The plotters lived a life of privilege of Zils Dachas and caviar They just weren’t hungry enoughGorbachov started channeling Shakespeare around 1985 Like Lear he had a vision of a harmonious state failing to foresee how vested interests and human rivalry would make it impossible; like Hamlet he is suspicious and not as innocent as he seems but is also vacillating and indecisive at key junctures; like Macbeth he believes he is bigger than the situation headed for a greater destiny When the curtain closes he is reviled by all sides and lucky to be aliveThe audience to this play is kept in a state of high dramatic tension Gorbachov is blind to his friends of forty years changing to enemies oblivious as they cut him off from rivals who in truth are the only people he can trust For God’s sake Gorbachov the butler did it Of course the Head of the KGB is plotting your downfall It isn’t the State Minster for Woman’s Issues that’s going to knife you in the back for heaven’s sakeThis is a great book well deserving of its Pulitzer Prize The tension grows leading up to the final section with details of the coupIf this was a thriller it would all be too thrilling But as a work of non fiction reality intrudes with all its messy reality Events are driven by dumb luck ambition personal grudges and – that key to understanding all human endeavors routine incompetence Even so some outstanding characters worthy of the finest novelist appear on its pages saints – Sakharov; villains – Ligachev; buffoons – Yanayev; tragic heroes Gorbachov YeltsinThe events of August 1991 in Russia have faded into memory Things could have gone much worse for Russia and the world that summer But as observers saw at the time once these events were over and done with Russia’s future remained very uncertain as it still remains today