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ebook æ Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies æ Jared Diamond

Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human SocietiesDiamond has written a book of remarkable scope one of the most important and readable works on the human past published in recent yearsWinner of the Pulitzer Prize and a national bestseller the global account of the rise of civilization that is also a stunning refutation of ideas of human development based on raceIn this artful informative and delightful William H McNeill Ne “Why you white men have so much cargo ie steel tools and other products of civilization and we New Guineans have so little?” Jared Diamond is a biologist who had a passion for studying birds particularly the birds of New Guinea But as he came to know and appreciate the many native people he met in his work the uestion asked by a New Guinean named Yani remained with him Why was it that westerners had so much relative to New Guinean natives who had been living on that land for forty thousand years Many found an explanation in racial exceptionalism Diamond decided to find out Was one group of people smarter than another? Why was there such dimorphism in the amount of cargo produced and toted by different groups?The arguments he seeks to counter are those stating that since civilization came to full flower in the Eurasian countries and not in places where other races dominated that this success indicated innate superiority He offers a stunning analysis of why civilization emerged in the places in which it did Jared Diamond – image from The GuardianGuns figure large in why some societies were able dominate others but the development of guns was not a universal The materials necessary are not eually distributed over the planet and there are technological prereuisites It turns out that not every locale is ideal for the emergence of farming He offers some detail on why farming flourished in some areas than in others The importance of domesticated animals is considered Diamond shows how it was possible for them to have been domesticated in some but not all of the theoretically possible locations He discusses the impact of germs the immunity defense developed by urban dwellers and the harm those germs can cause when those urban dwellers come into contact with peoples who lack such immunities Although Steel figures prominently in the title and is significant in its use in weaponry this aspect is given the lightest treatment in the book Diamond closes with a plea for history to be redefined as History Science claiming that as with many other historical sciences it holds the elements necessary to merit the science designationWhile I might have been happier if the title had been Guns Germs and Seeds it remains a seminal look at the whys and wherefores of how some societies came to flourish often at the expense of others It has nothing to do with genes Guns Germs and Steel was awarded the Pulitzer Prize EXTRA STUFFLinks to the author’s personal Twitter and FB pagesAn excellent National Geogrtaphic documentary was made of this book Here is a link to the first of its three episodesDiamond's book Collapse is also amazing

ebook Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies

kindle ↠ Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies Ø Paperback º eyltransferservices ☆ ❰KINDLE❯ ✾ Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies Author Jared Diamond – Diamond has written a book of remConuer and decimate preliterate cultures A major advance in our understanding of human societies Guns Germs and Steel chronicles the way that the modern world came to be and stunningly dismantles racially based theories of human historyWinner of the Pulitzer Prize the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science the Rhone Poulenc Prize and the Commonwealth Club of California's Gold Meda Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies Jared DiamondThe book attempts to explain why Eurasian and North African civilizations have survived and conuered others while arguing against the idea that Eurasian hegemony is due to any form of Eurasian intellectual moral or inherent genetic superiority Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 trans disciplinary non fiction book by Jared Diamond professor of geography and physiology at the University of California Los Angeles UCLA عنوان ت‍ف‍ن‍گ‌ه‍ا، م‍ی‍ک‍روب‌ه‍ا و ف‍ولاد؛ اسلحه، میکروب و فولاد سرنوشت جوامع انسانی؛ نویسنده ج‍رد میسن دای‍ام‍ون‍د دایموند؛ تاریخ نخستین خوانش روز نهم ماه اکتبر سال 2002میلادیعنوان ت‍ف‍ن‍گ‌ه‍ا، م‍ی‍ک‍روب‌ه‍ا و ف‍ولاد؛ نویسنده ج‍رد میسن دای‍ام‍ون‍د دایموند؛ مت‍رج‍م‍ س‍وس‍ن‌ س‍ل‍ی‍م‌زاده‌؛ ت‍ه‍ران‌ وزارت‌ ف‍ره‍ن‍گ‌ و ارش‍اد اس‍لام‍ی‌، س‍ازم‍ان‌ چ‍اپ‌ و ان‍ت‍ش‍ارات‌، 1380؛ در 682ص؛ شابک ایکس 964422258؛ موضوع ت‍ک‍ام‍ل‌ اج‍ت‍م‍اع‍ی‌ ت‍م‍دن‌ ت‍اری‍خ‌ قوم شناسی اشاعه فرهنگ از نویسندگان ایالات متحده امریکا سده 20معنوان اسلحه، میکروب و فولاد سرنوشت جوامع انسانی؛ نویسنده جرد دایموند ؛ مترجم حسن مرتضوی؛ تهران بازتاب نگار‏‫، 1387؛ در 539ص؛ شابک 9789648223378؛ چاپ دوم 1394؛ چاپ سوم 1396؛‬ چاپ دیگر تهران، نشر کلاغ، 1391؛ در 544ص؛ شابک 9786009298464؛تلاشی است برای توضیح اینکه چرا تمدن‌های اوراسیا به همراه شمال آفریقا، موفق به تسخیر، یا مقاومت در برابر دیگر تمدن‌ها شده‌ اند، و در عین حال تلاش در رد باوری که سلطه ی اورآسیا را، به برتری اروپایی‌ها، و آسیایی‌ها از لحاظ اخلاقی، ذاتی، ژنتیکی، یا فکری نسبت می‌دهددایموند استدلال می‌کند، که شکاف در قدرت، و فناوری، بین جوامع انسانی، ریشه در تفاوت‌های زیست‌ محیطی دارد، تفاوت‌هایی که حلقه ی بازخورد مثبت آن‌ها را، تقویت می‌کند به این معنا که برتری محیطی، باعث پیشرفت تکنولوژی می‌شود، و برتری تکنولوژی، باعث پیشرفت‌های بیشتری می‌شوند، که در جای خود پیشرفت بیشتری نیز به دنبال می‌آورد؛ در مواردی که تفاوت‌های فرهنگی، یا ژنتیکی، به نفع اورآسیایی‌ها عمل کرده‌ است به عنوان مثال دولت متمرکز در چین، یا مقاومت ژنتیکی در برابر بسیاری بیماری‌ها در میان اورآسیای‌ها، این مزیت‌ها تنها به دلیل تأثیرات جغرافیایی به وجود آمده‌ اند، و در ژن اروپایی و آسیایی ریشه ندارنددایموند اشاره می‌کند که تقریباً تمام دستاوردهای بشری علمی، هنری، معماری، سیاسی، و غیره در قاره اورآسیا رخ داده‌ است؛ مردمان قاره‌ های دیگر جنوب صحرای آفریقا، بومیان آمریکا، بومیان استرالیا و گینه نو، و ساکنین اصلی مناطق گرمسیری آسیای جنوب شرقی، به‌ طور گسترده‌ ای مغلوب، و جا به‌ جا شده‌ اند، و در برخی موارد فوق‌العاده اشاره به بومیان آمریکا، بومیان استرالیا و بومیان خوآسان جنوب آفریقا عمدتاً از بین رفته‌ اندبرهان نخست این سلطه ی اوراسیائی‌ها، برتری‌های نظامی و سیاسی آن‌ها بوده، که خود ناشی از پیدایش زود هنگام کشاورزی، در میان این اقوام، پس از آخرین عصر یخ بوده‌ است؛ دایموند در این کتاب برهانهایی برای بازگویی چنین توزیع نامتناسبی از قدرت و دست‌آوردها پیشنهاد می‌کندعنوان کتاب نیز اشاره‌ ای است، به راههایی که به وسیله آن‌ها، اروپایی‌ها علی‌رغم تعداد نفرات کمتر، ملتهای دیگر را مغلوب کرده و سلطهٔ خود را حفظ کرده‌ اند، سلاح‌های برتر مستقیماً منجر به برتری نظامی می‌شوند اسلحه؛ بیماری‌های اروپایی و آسیایی جمعیت‌های بومی را تضعیف کرده، و کاهش داده، باعث می‌شوند اِعمال کنترل بر آن‌ها راحت‌تر شود میکروب، و دولت متمرکز ناسیون

Jared Diamond æ Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies book

W York Review of Books book Jared Diamond convincingly argues that geographical and environmental factors shaped the modern world Societies that had a head start in food production advanced beyond the hunter gatherer stage and then developed writing technology government and organized religion as well as nasty germs and potent weapons of war and adventured on sea and land to Author Jared Diamond's two part thesis is 1 the most important theme in human history is that of civilizations beating the crap out of each other 2 the reason the beat ors were Europeans and the beat ees the Aboriginees Mayans et al is because of the geographical features of where each civilization happened to develop Whether societies developed gunpowder written language and other technological niceties argues Diamond is completely a function of whether they emerged amidst travel and trade condusive geography and easily domesticable plants and animalsI'm not sure I agree that why the Spanish obliterated the Mayans instead of visa versa is the most interesting uestion of human history How about the evolution of ideas or the impact of great leaders and inventors? But it is an interesting uestion and worth exploring Diamond is a philosophical monist neatly ascribing just about every juncture in human history to a single cause or related group of causes Given his extensive background in botany and geology it makes sense that he would look for the impact of those factors in the human story Unfortunately those factors are all he regards as important; he relegates to insignificance the contribution of ideas innovations and the decision making of individuals or cultures His view is fatalistic seemingly motivated by a PC era desire to pronounce all cultures eual and their fates the product of random circumstanceA contradiction here is that fatalistic viewpoints are incompatible with moral pronouncements If nobody can control their actions who's to blame for anything? Diamond is condemnatory of the Spanish incursion into Mayan lands but the logical conseuence of his theory is that the Mayans would have done the same to the Spanish if they had been first to develop the musket and frigate Taking Diamond's theory seriously means we'd have to view imperialism as natural and unavoidable like the predation of animals and be unable to criticize any culture's actions whateverAll that said this is a fascinating and worthwhile readThere's no doubt that the factors Diamond identified had some role in human progress however and if you can put aside the author's predisposition towards his own field and somewhat sketchy philosophical foundation the book is a compelling and vivid account of what life was like for the earliest civilizations Diamond describes the evolution of agriculture written language and other indispensable facets of human history giving us a crash tour through the earliest days of human history The specialized expertise that ultimately derails Diamond's overview at the same time offers a compelling and detailed view of the rise of mankind