FREE MOBI ↠ DOC The Horses of St Paris and Venice


BOOK The Horses of St

FREE MOBI ↠ DOC The Horses of St Paris and Venice ☆ [KINDLE] ❁ The Horses of St. Mark's: A Story of Triumph in Byzantium, Paris, and Venice ❅ Charles Freeman – Eyltransferservices.co.uk Celebrated historian Charles Freeman author of the 2009 surprise hit AD 381 explores the mysterious origin of the statues F 1848; and back in Venice the most romantic city in the world In this remarkable new book Freeman shows how the horses came to stand at the heart of European history time and time agai Lots of history seems authoritative

The Horses of St Mark's A Story of Triumph in Byzantium Paris and VeniceF 1848; and back in Venice the most romantic city in the world In this remarkable new book Freeman shows how the horses came to stand at the heart of European history time and time agai Lots of history seems authoritative

EBOOK ✓ Mark's A Story of Triumph in Byzantium ì Charles Freeman

The Horses of St. Mark's: A Story of Triumph in Byzantium, Paris, and Venice ´ Celebrated historian Charles Freeman author of the 2009 surprise hit AD 381 explores the mysterious origin of the statues and their turbulent movements through Europe over the centuries Charles Freeman is a historian though as I will mention below he writes some things that seem odd coming from that direction This fine and interesting book seems to have been written from an art and cultural history perspectiveThe horses themselves are the beautiful bronze horses looted with so much else treasure from Constantinople when the Eastern Roman Empire was destroyed by the Fourth Crusade in 1204 one of the great tragedies of history The Empire made a partial recovery and reestablished itself in 1261 but the its role as a buffer between the raiding and invading forces from the East first the Arabs then the Turks was effectively ended by the CrusadeThe reconstituted empire did not have the resources to prevent the spread of Turkish power Most of its land had been awarded by the Crusaders to Venice and to the leaders of the expedition becoming organized into weak feudal mini states that had no hope of withstanding the Turkish armies when they eventually appeared The trade that had sustained the empire was now controlled by the Venetians and others The empire was nibbled down by the Turks until only Constantinople itself was left for the Turks to capture and loot in 1453 while the West watched passively The Balkans then vanished into harsh Turkish rule and the Sultan's forces advanced to Italy and to the gates of Vienna twiceSo what about the horses? In this book Freeman explores answers to two uestions where did they come from and what did they mean? And in the course of doing so explores how Venetial culture developed from the 1200s up through the 19th century and how we perceive and understand artThe uestion of meaning both in how a culture sees itself and how we see art is the heart of this book Freeman traces the post Crusade self image of Venice from a wealthy and mighty regional force based upon its prowess in trade and battle to an imperial power that effectively controlled the northern Medterannean from the east coast of Italy to the western coast of the Balkans up to Constantinople itselfThe empire was not long lived empire it ultmately faded because of the drain of ongoing battles with the Turks and others and the establishment of trade routes that bypassed the stormy Middle East and reached Asian partners by routes around Africa And of course the Iberians had sailed west and discovered a whole new world whose riches made Spain prosperous beyond all imagining and sent economic ripples through the world Eventually Venice itself became weak and prey to a pillaging conueror though Napoleon's conuest was amost benign compared to the CrusadeSo what happened in between? The horses were mounted on the loggia of the western facade of the great basilica of San Marco itself modeled on the Church of the Holy Apostles that housed the tombs of the Eastern Emperors and was looted and burned in the Crusade along with other pillaged treasuresVenice started to see itself as the imperial successor of Constantinople and the Doge long ago the Roman duke in charge of the city took on some of the trappings of an emperorWhat the horses were doing there other than being part of the display of looted treasures is part of what Freeman explores He examines the religious symbolism of teams of horses going back in history He examines the appropriation of Eastern Roman symbolism and public ceremonies by the Venetian powers The Piazza San Marco became the kind of public space that the Hippodrome was in ConstantinopleThe horses in turn became a symbol of the new grandeur of the cityWhile Venice's imperial glory faded the Venetians themselves built a remarkably resilient and in many ways egalitarian society The noble families were held in check and ultimately succeeded in influence by newcomers whose careers were built on trade and military success The Doge's wings were clipped by increasing restrictions on his power and rules designed to prevent the formation of a ducal dynasty The Great Council with over 1000 members the Senate some 300 people drawn from the Council exercised real powerThe second major thread of Freeman's book is the exploration of where the horses had come from Obviously they had been taken from Constantinople but where had they been created? The theories were many and varied they were Greek they were Persian they were Roman They commemorated a great victory they had stood at Delphi and so onFreeman explains that the horses were made of copper not bronze and teaches us what that means about their origin He gives his own theory about this which makes a lot of senseA subtheme of the book and a fascinating one is how perception of art works changes with culture and time The many different reactions to the horses and their rise and fall in aesthetic value depending on who was evaluating them and what his yes they're all men that's how it was back in the day perception of who created them was is fascinatingThere are a few things about the book that were irritatingFreeman calls the Great Church in Constantinople Santa Sophia which is not only inaccurate but misleading I know that it's a common Anglicization but historians should do better The name of the church is Hagia Sophia and it doesn't mean saint anyone It means Divine Wisdom and is one of three churches named after godly attributes The other two are Hagia Eirene Divine Peace a hollowed out shell of a building now sometimes used as a concert hall and Hagia Dynamis Divine Power which may or may not have been completed and which has not to my knowledge been identified as a surviving buildingAlso his bland statement that Hagia Sophia is still intact today is laughable A lot of the structure of Justinian's original church remains but the building was remodeled by the Turks when it was turned into a mosue in 1453 The icons and religious images were destroyed or plastered over some have been restored huge discs with Islamic calligraphy hang from the ceiling of the nave The altar and iconostasis are gone and a mirhab and minbar installed The focus of the church has been turned south towards Mecca from its original focus towards Jerusalem And there was extensive 19th century renovation by Swiss architects in the 19th Century that helped in some ways and hurt in others There are now Muslim outbuildings and other additions The old baptistry is gone etc What's left is magnificent but only a hint of what the original must have been and what it looked like in say the 1100sFreeman is also oddly dismissive of the seemingly unassailable claim of the Eastern emperors to be Roman emperors The emperors lasted in succession often stormy to be sure from Augustus in 27 BCE to the end of Constantine XI in 1453 Surely it's not uite accurate to write that the Eastern emperors always claimed with some justifition to be the direct successors of the Roman emperors They had than some justification They ruled an empire until it was nibbled down to the city of Constantinople populated by people who thought they were Roman and that carried on the succession some traditions and institutions of the Roman empireHe also writes that the body of Enrico Dandalo the doge who turned the Fourth Crusade into a war against the Eastern Empire still lies in Santa Sophia its burial place marked by a simple engraved slab That's at least uestionable The simple slab was engraved by the Fossettis over 600 years after Dandolo's death and it's hard to believe that they had any real knowledge of where the body was buried There are traditions that suggest that Dandolo's body was exhumed and tossed into the streets either by vengeful Romans when the city was recovered or by the Turkish looters looking for valuables in the sack of 1453Yet this is still a fine book and worth reading If you want a good history of Venice take a look at Roger Crowley's City of Fortune but this is both and less than a simple history It's an examination of a culture and of how we perceive evaluate and give meaning to works of art There's a lot to learn and reflect on in this book EBOOK ✓ Mark's A Story of Triumph in Byzantium ì Charles Freeman

Charles Freeman ì A Story of Triumph in Byzantium KINDLE

Charles Freeman ì A Story of Triumph in Byzantium KINDLE In Constantinople at both its founding and sacking in the Fourth Crusade; in Venice at both the height of its greatness and fall in 1797; in the Paris of Napoleon and the revolutions o The books is partially a history of the Greek empire partially a history of Venice partially of the renaissance and sporadically a history of the good four horses Good for those that do not know about the first items not that much for those only ignorant of the euine side of the book At least Freeman tells us why he cannot tell