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EBOOK ↠ EPUB Shi'ite Islam è 0873953908 FREE Ñ [PDF] ✐ Shi'ite Islam Author Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabā'ī – Eyltransferservices.co.uk Despite a growing interest in the last hundred years in both orientalism and comparative religions and the fact that thereDespite a growing interest in the last hundred years in both orientalism and comparative religions and the fact that there are over fifty million Shi'a Muslims until now there has been no thorough and objective study of that part of Islam called Shi'ism for Western scholars T A classic The best on the topic hands down And naturally Allamah Tabatabai well was an allamah meaning the 'Most Accomplished Scholar' which is awarded to one or two people per Islamic century He is from a long line of first rate scholars theologians researchers and Without a doubt this IS THE source on Shia Islam to consult All others old and new fade in comparison The editortranslator however does not do justice to the work or the grand station of Tabatabai and his opinions and assessments ought to be ignored

BOOK Ú Shi'ite Islam ↠ Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabā'ī

Terature presents its rational philosophic traditional legal and gnostic mystical elements with warmth and sympathy The result is a well integrated general picture which succeeds in giving the reader a clear and comprehensive picture of how the Shi'ite Muslim views his religi This book is a well organized introduction to Shi'ism by an eminent Islamic scholar It provides a way of understanding Iran a country which is about 90% Shi'iteAs is widely known there is no division in Islam between Church and State as exists in Christianity Religious and civil society made up a single body of believers This did not lead to difficulties as long as Muhammed was alive His view on all matters was definitive There was no uestion about control of the ummah community of the faithful But at his death there was a split between his family known in Muslim accounts as the Household and the his un related followers the Companions The most highly regarded person in the Household was Muhammed's son in law Ali He was the first person to become Muslim Among the Companions Abu Bakr was most admired The uestion was which of the two should lead the ummah but than governance was involvedAli's relation to Muhammed was closer and being a relative his relation was emotional Ali and the rest of the Household became known as Shi'ites meaning partisans But it was Abu Bakr lieutenant to Muhammed and the person in charge of his military conuests who became caliph ie successor to Muhammed Abu Bakr and his followers a majority were known as Sunnis from the word for tradition The Shi'ites continued as a minority for some twenty four years under Abu Bakr and two following Sunni caliphs; then Ali the dissenter became caliph His contentious five year reign ended when he was killed in battle The Sunni Umayyad dynasty then began During that time the Shi'ites remained out of power in the Muslim empire although they ruled various provinces in Persia Ira and SyriaKey to Shi'ism is the concept of certain individuals who possess very superior enlightenment They are known as Imams and have a status between Prophets like Muhammed and ordinary people Only one Imam can be alive at any time There were a number of Shi'ia sects differing as to who the Imams were and how many of them there were But today the Twelvers are predominant by far To get a better understanding of the concept of the imam we need to know something about Islamic religious philosophy The author explains this in Chapter III V treating Shi'ism and Sunnism as essentially similar There are three levels of religious thought The simplest is the observation of procedures such as fasting and prayer These are actions of which all people are capable Then there is the intellectual and analytical analysis employed in philosophy both Western and Islamic This is certainly complex Last there is intuitive mysticism ie an intuitive perception of reality which is difficult to explain but leads to the perception of reality as a whole rather than specific rituals or concepts This is the most difficult of all The two higher levels are not for everyoneThe author presents a straightforward realistic philosophical idealism He believes in an inner world of thoughts and an outer world of physical objects and sense perceptions These worlds are harmonious The outer world conforms to human needs The author points out If creation has given man bread it has also given him feet to seek it hands to grasp it a mouth to eat it and teeth to chew it p125 This leads to an argument from design that the universe is a product of conscious design All in all it seems to be a pleasant world for human individuals There is one God who possesses all positive ualities Man has free will but the author reconciles this with determinism by asserting that God the Exalted has willed and made necessary the act through all of the parts of the complete cause of which one is the will and free choice of man p135There would seem to be a rational universe and a place for individual human beings in it But the laws that govern the happiness of human society cannot be found by reason but depend on revelation They place a demand on everyone's understanding Being disinclined to logical analysis and mystic intuition ordinary humanity reuires miraculous events in order to believe In Shi'ism those with the ability to produce miracles and receive revelations are called Prophets Muhammed was the last of them but there were many before him The chief miracle he left behind is the uran itself There are other extremely virtuous individuals called Imams who do not perform miracles but can experience revelations The reason for this division is that the prophetic voice is needed only once in history but therafter it must be continually explained; therefore an Imam is always reuiredThe author devotes a number of pages to demonstrating that Ali by virtue of Muhammed's endorsement was properly the first Imam The evidence consists entirely of hadith which are anecdotes of Muslim history There are thousands of hadith; some of them are not considered genuine by Muslim scholars A problem is that there appears to be no way of validating the first Imam Ali other than by citing hadith The author states Shi'ism has reached the conclusion that there are sufficient traditional texts left by the Prophet to indicate the procedure for determining the Imam and successor of the Prophet This conclusion is supported by uranic verses and hadiths which Shi'ism considers as sound p177 So we must hope We have only anecdotes not historyIn the usual Twelver Shi'ism there were twelve Imams from Ali to the final one of a similar name Ali ibn Muhammed Simmari who went into occultation hiding in 909 CE and will not emerge until God grants permission There is a hadith that states that on his emergence as a heroic figure the Mahdi He will fill the earth with euality and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny p211 We are not told what sort of euality and justice it will be The Imamate seems to be a hereditary calling since each of the eleven after Ali was the son of the previous Imam Shi'ism does not seem to have any political philosophy since as said before the governance of human society is a matter of revelationThe author presents capsule biographies of the Twelve They show that Islam in its first few centuries was a tumultuous affair The fight over who should control the ummah was ferocious A majority of the Twelve were killed by poisoning; others were killed in battle with their political opponents This book appeared in 1978 but it certainly seems prophetic given that 909 CE is the latest date in it

Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabā'ī ↠ Shi'ite Islam MOBI

Shi'ite IslamHe present work provides a clear account of the origin history and doctrines of an important sector of the Muslim religious community It is written by a distinguished leader of that community who in addition to possessing a thorough knowledge of its traditional history and li Brilliant introduction to Shi'ism from an erudite contemporary scholar of the religion excellent English translation Recommended for both Muslim and non Muslims alike